Mental disorders can be caused by severe trauma from an event or disruption in brain function. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders and personality disorders are all examples of mental disorders.
Mental Disorders can significantly impact how someone thinks, acts, and interacts. People with mental disorders can have difficulty moving, working, or even interacting with others if they are not treated.
In 2018, the Ministry of Health's Basic Health Research, (Riskesdas), reported that more than 19,000,000 Indonesians over 15 have mental-emotional disorder and that more than 12,000,000 people suffer from depression. Comparing data from 2013, this number tends to rise.
We don't know the exact causes of mental disorders. There are many factors that can increase the risk of developing mental disorders.
- Congenital or genetic factors
- A family history of mental disorders
- Heavy stress
- You have experienced trauma, such as being victim to abuse or violence.
- Use of illegal substances and excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages
- Some medical conditions such as stroke, severe brain injury, or thyroid disorders, may be dangerous.
Common Types of Mental Disorders
Mental disorders are still a serious health issue that is often viewed negatively by society.
Many people believe that mental disorders are caused by hallucinations and behavioral problems. Many people still believe that mental disorders should be kept in prison or shackled.
There are many types of mental disorders, and each one has its own symptoms and signs. These are some of the most common mental disorders:
1. Anxiety disorders
Anxiety disorders include generalized anxious disorder and social anxiety disorder. Phobias, panic, and social anxiety disorder are all examples. Anxiety disorders can be psychiatric disorders that cause anxiety and make it difficult for sufferers to feel calm and at ease.
An anxiety disorder can cause symptoms such as profuse sweating or fast heartbeat, chest palpitations, dizziness, difficulty concentrating, insomnia, anxious thoughts, and difficulty with daily activities.
2. Personality disorders
Persons with a personality disorder have a tendency to think, feel, and act differently than the majority of people. There are several types of personality disorders.
- Eccentric types, such as paranoid , schizoid, schizotypal, and antisocial personality disorders
- The dramatic or emotional type, such as narcissistic, histrionic , and borderline personality disorders
- Fearful and anxious types such as those with obsessive compulsive disorder, avoidant, and dependent personality disorders are common.
3. Psychotic disorders
Psychotic disorders refer to severe mental disorders that can cause abnormal thoughts or perceptions.
Psychotic disorders can cause hallucinations and make people believe in things that don't really exist. They may also experience paranoia, hear, see or feel things that aren't real.
4. Mood disorders
It is normal for mood changes to occur from time-to-time, especially when there are trigger factors such as stress, fatigue or mental stress.
People with mood disorders may experience rapid and extreme mood swings. You might feel happy, excited, and then suddenly sad in a calm mood.
There are many mental disorders that can cause mood swings, including depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymic disorder.
5. Eating disorders
Eating Disorders are mental conditions that can cause a person to have a disturbed eating pattern. Many people with this condition may experience nutritional problems such as malnutrition and obesity.
Examples of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa , as well as binge-eating disorder or binge eating disorder.
6. Addictions and impulse control disorders
People suffering from impulse control disorders can't resist the urge to harm others or themselves, such as gambling, stealing , and lighting fires (pyromania).
Addictions and addictive behavior disorders, such as those resulting from drug abuse or addiction to alcohol or narcotics, are common. A person may also become addicted to certain activities such as shopping, masturbation or sex.
7. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
This mental disorder causes uncontrollable thoughts or obsessions that encourage sufferers to repeat an activity.
People with OCD might become obsessed with numbers such as the number 3. They may feel the need to perform certain actions, such as knocking at the door three times or washing their hands. OCD sufferers who don't do this will feel anxious and worried.
8. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
PTSD is a condition that can occur after someone experiences trauma or horrific events, such as physical or sexual abuse, the death or loss of a loved one or natural disasters.
People with PTSD often have trouble forgetting the unpleasant thoughts and events.
No matter what type of mental disorder, all individuals need to see a psychiatrist or psychologist. Neglecting to treat mental disorders properly can lead to worsening and even death.
A psychiatrist should be consulted immediately if you or someone you care about shows signs of a mental disorder. A psychiatrist will conduct an examination to determine if a sufferer has a mental disorder. The psychiatrist will then conduct a psychiatric examination to determine the type of mental disorder the patient is suffering.